Islamic Renaissance in South Asia(1707-1867)
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Dr, Rais Fatima’s work dealing with the contribution of the Arab poets of the Middle Ages to ghazal, a form of lyrical poetry in Arabic. is truly a comprehensive and analytical survey of the subject. Man must have courted women since antiquity by employing various means of expression sion, but the most appealing and inspire ing must have been poetry. Hence, poetry reached its apogee in the form of lyrics which were meant to be sung, for poetry through music has a greater and direct appeal. With the ancient Arabs, poetry was their second nature. In the vast ex panses of the desert, the rigours of the climate and the search for waters fresh and pastures new, singing the verses of the ancient bards must have given the Arabs spiritual tranquility and mental peace, and sung in the melodious Arabian music, it must have roused their sense of yearning for the beloved.During the Umayyad period, Arabic poetry acquired a higher form of pure ghazal, which became popular with the passage of time. This form deeply influ enced world literature. Ghazal became the primary mode of expression in Perl sian which produced great poets like Sa’di and Hafiz. In modern times, it influenced Urdu, which gave us the greatest ghazal-writer of modern times Ghalib. Arabic ghazal, also influenced spanish Arabic poetry, where the special form, al-muwashshah, was developed, and produced the troubadours in Provence.
Dr . Rais Fatima